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Aldehydes can be prepared from dimethylformamide
and from formic and orthoformic ester,

HCO.OCoHg -f RMgI->RCHO + MgI.OC2H5.
Ketoncs may be obtained from cyanogen, cyanides, or

RCN + RMgl -> R.C<          •> R.CO.R + NH3

Acids are produced by passing carbon dioxide into tlie ether
solution of the magnesium alkyl compound,

xOMgI            ,OH

RMgl -f- COa -> R.C/          -> R.O;        + MgI(Ol J ).

In addition to the above, Grignard's reagent has been utilised
in preparing defines, ethers, ketonic esters, hydroxy-acids,
quinols, amides, hydroxylamines, &c., for details of whlcii books
of reference must be consulted.1


; Benzoyl Chloride.—The formation of esters by fhe action
of benzoyl chloride or other acid chloride on an alcohol or phenol
in presence of caustic soda is known as the " Schotteii- 13aumann
reaction." The reaction may also be employed in tlie prepara-
tion of derivatives of the aromatic amines containing- £m acid
radical, like benzanilide, C0H6NH.CO.C0H5,

NH.,C6H3-fNaOH = C(IIIflCO.NHC6H6+NaCl+ IIaO.

Ethyl Ben25Oate.—The method of Fischer and Speier for
the preparation of esters, by boiling together the acid, with the
alcohol containing about 3 per cent, of either hydrocllloric acid
1 Schmidt, Ahrens* Vortrtigei 1905, 10, 68.                                ^